Theory
WRASIM is a general-purpose wide-area water supply and demand utilization simulation model based on the minimum cost network flow planning method. The so-called network flow refers to the network pattern composed of many nodes and arrows. The node represents a position, and the arrow line is a directional connection between the nodes, which has water flow. The main limitation of the mode is that the discharge into and out of the node should be conserved, and the arrow line has the upper and lower limits of the discharge, and each arrow is given a cost or weight coefficient of one unit of water flow. The minimum cost network flow planning is to find the overall flow mode of minimum cost in the case that the water flow in and out of the nodes is conserved and the flow rate on each arrow line meets the upper and lower limits. If a network stream has m nodes, the network flow proposition of its minimum flow cost is as follows:
Minimize` sum_(i=1)^m sum_(j=1)^m C_(ij) * X_(ij)`(1)
Subject to
`sum_(j=1)^m X_(ji)- sum_(j=1)^m X_(ij)=0` `i=1,...m; j≠i`(2)
`l_(ij) ≤ x_(ij) ≤ u_(ij)` `i,j=1,...m`(3)
Where m = total number of nodes, i, j = node number, `x_(ij)` = discharge from node i to node j, `c_(ij)` = discharge cost or weight per unit of water from arrow i to node j, `i_(ij)` = The lower limit of the discharge on the arrow line from node i to node j, `u_(ij)` = the upper limit of the arrow flow between node i and node j. In the above formulas, the formula (2) represents a limit of conservation of the discharge entry and exit node, and the equation (3) represents a limit of the magnitude of the arrow discharge.
Figure 7 shows a network flow diagram of a general water resources system. The diagram divides the composition of the water resources system into: inflows, reservoirs, hydropower plants, water purification plants, confluence points or water diversion points, water demand and terminals, etc. Each arrows connecting the nodes may be: rivers, reservoirs, water pipes, water diversion tunnels, and water pipelines. According to the mathematical propositions of equations (1) to (3), the network flow mode can obtain the water distribution result that meets the priority order.
The biggest advantage of WRASIM is that its water distribution concept is clear. By appropriately setting the demand or the order of reservoir water storage, the model can effectively solve the complex wide-area system water allocation problem.
Figure.7 Recurring network flow diagram of physical system and virtual nodes and arrows
Input and output data
The WRASIM model divides the physical system nodes into: reservoirs (separate or combined use of reservoirs), general demand (consumptive or non-consumptive demand), spiked power generation requirements (considering nonlinear relationships with reservoir storage), and specific Agricultural water demand (considering return water), inflow (natural inflow or hydrological model simulated flow), river storage, pumping area, water purification field, general confluence, diversion and system terminal.