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  1. Microscale modeling of submarine geomorphology trends

    1. SWMM model

      Calculate the amount of change in local erosion or siltation. Predictive analysis for local submarine geomorphology trends, they are generally 3-D modeling.

      MIKE3 FM (Danish Hydraulic Institute, DHI) Widely applied to estuaries, harbors and coastal areas. Simulate 3D
      flow phenomenon of free surface, including : advection-dispersion, water quality, heavy metal pollution, water eutrophication, sediment transport of hydrodynamic.
      FLOW-3D (Dr. C.W. Hirt) Applied to aerospace engineering, machine casting, river regulation, ship simulation, inkjet and smear, electrical engineering and coastal engineering, etc.
      Delft 3d-wave (Delft hydraulics, Netherlands) Fluid mechanics, wave mechanics, sediment transport, geomorphology, water quality, particle tracking and ecology.
      CMS-M3D (US Army Corps of Engineers) Simulation of wave and flow field at coastal construction, sand bar, inlet, diversion dike.
  2. Mesoscale modeling of submarine geomorphology trends

    Larger local submarine geomorphology trends is feasible,the calculations of flow field are governed by numerical model of 2-D depth average velocity and 3-D geomorphology trends, they are generally 2-D modeling.

    Mesoscale Name Features
    MIKE 21 ST (Danish Hydraulic Institute, DHI) Wave deformation caused by wave breaking, bottom friction and current resistance is governed by wave density equation. The flow field considers factors such as tide, wind, Coriolis force, wave radiation stress and bottom friction. Calculation of sediment transport is governed by empirical formula.
    COMOR (Delft hydraulics, Netherlands, 1989) The environmental factors, parameters, and reference formulas considered in wave field, flow field, and sediment transport calculation are roughly same as above. 
    WATAN3 (Ohnaka and Watanabe, 1990) The wave deformation is analyzed by the mild-slope wave equation. The near-shore flow field considers the wave radiation stress, the bed friction effect and the shear stress between the fluids. Aiming at the factors of drift movement caused by the shear stress of the bed, a set of estimation formula of drift quantity is established based on the experimental data.
    SMC (Cantabria university, Spain, 1995-2002) Developed for the Spanish Ministry of the Environment by the Cantabria University in Spain from 1995 to 2002, this model has now become a comprehensive coastal planning and change software for the national use in Spain.(Fig.1)
    Figure.1  Architecture of SMC

    Figure.1 Architecture of SMC

    SMC web(

  3. Large-scale modeling of submarine geomorphology trends

    Mainly consider the submarine geomorphology trends in large space and long-term scale, they are generally 1-D modeling.

    Large-scale Name Features
    Delft’s UNIBEST-LT (Roelvink and Stive, 1989)(Netherlands) Longshore currents are mainly caused by the combination of wave radiation stress and sea tides.
    DHI’s LITPACK (Hedgaard et. Al, 1991)(Denmark) The same as the Dutch UNIBEST-LT mode is the deterministic mode, but the physical quantity affected by the external force needs to consider the driving force caused by the bottom bed friction, wind shear force and coastal water level difference.
    CERC’s GENSIS (Hanson and Kraus, 1989) (US Army Corps of Engineers). Developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers Coastal Engineering Research Center (CERC), promoted by Veri-Tech Inc. to analyze the long-term coastline changes caused by wave action, and can be applied to the situation when there are structures on the coastline. It can analyze the situation of drifting sand bypassing or transiting structure activities.
    IBM PAN SAND94 (Szmytkiewicz, 1995) (Poland) It can analyze wave deformation, near-shore flow, sediment transport and shoreline changes. The near-shore flow is caused by the energy loss after wave breaking. The Battjes and Janssen formula (1978) is govern to calculate waves breaking and the variation of wave height after waves breaks.